Escape motion is a type of picking motion that moves away from the body of the guitar along a diagonal or semicircular motion path. This allows the pick to break free from in between the strings and escape, avoiding the surrounding strings, and making clean string changes possible.
The discovery that motions escape, and that great players subconsciously choose phrases that match their escape motion, is one of Cracking the Code’s early breakthroughs that made clean picking possible for players who never thought they’d have Malmsteen or Johnson levels of sparkling clarity. The good news is that most joint motions used in picking technique already possess some type of escape. For many players, this amounts to a freebie that can be unlocked simply by becoming more aware of the type of escape motion you already use.
Getting In the Zone
You can think of the area around the strings as two zones, a trapped zone and an escape zone:
The trapped zone is the space below the strings, near the body of the guitar. This is where you position the point of the pick when you want to play a note. The escape zone is the area above the strings. This is where you have to be when you want to switch strings, to avoid hitting something.
So a pickstroke that can switch strings would need to move through both places. It would need to spend at least part of its travel in the trapped zone between the strings to play the note, and part in the escape zone above the strings, where it can move around more freely and switch strings.
The Four Escape Types
And if you think about it, there are really four different picking motions you can make based on which zone the pick is in when it starts the pickstroke, and which zone it’s in when it finishes:
Implications of escape motion
Of these four possibilities, three include an escape, and one is completely trapped. And all of them have their place in efficient picking technique, because each one can handle a specific type of string change.
Since all picking motions have to fall into one of these four categories, we arrive at a collection of amazing realizations about how picking technique actually works:
1. Alternate picking is not one motion
Instead, it’s a family of motions. They each share the characteristic of moving back and forth and playing notes in both directions. But what differentiates them is something even deeper: the shape of their motion. Of the four types of core alternate picking motions, one is a semicircle, one is parallel to the strings, and two are slanted to the strings in opposite directions. The escape type you use is determined by the joint motion you know how to make. Since most players use only one joint motion for fast playing, they can only play cleanly and smoothly when they play phrases that match that escape.
2. Not all picking motions work with all phrases
In order to play multi-string lines cleanly, the picking motion you choose must actually have an escape stroke at the moment of the string change, or you’re going to hit something.
For example, if your primary joint motion creates a downstroke escape, then this motion can only move from one string to another without mistakes when the final pickstroke on every string is a downstroke. The reverse is also true: If your primary joint motion creates an upstroke escape, then the final pickstroke on each string must be an upstroke in order to get into the escape zone without contacting the surrounding strings.
For phrases which involve both upstroke and downstroke string changes, escape motions can be combined in sophisticated ways. For example, the amazing Andy Wood relies primarily on a combination of two motions — downstroke escape (DSX), and double escape (DBX) — to play a wide variety of phrases on both guitar and mandolin. Andy generally performs this mixing and matching at a subconscious level, refined over years of trial-and-error-based practice.
3. Elite players subconsciously match motions and phrases
Believe it or not, many of the world’s most famous players rely primarily on this type of “always upstroke” or “always downstroke” string change organization for faster playing, and have tailored their entire musical vocabularies to fit this requirement. This is not a matter of personal preference or physiology. It’s because the simplest and fastest joint motions you can make all work this way, and most players have one primary motion they rely on when tempos increase.
Not only that, but they perform this phrase matching subconsciously, through a process of trial and error that relies on smoothness of motion feel, until their entire vocabulary is populated by phrases that match their motion type. It may be hard to believe that such a process could be conducted without overt awareness, but over the course of many interviews with some of the world’s best players, we’ve learned that this is actually pretty common.
Musical instrument motor learning happens primarily by touch and sound, and players are often not aware of the specific motions they are making, even when those motions are pointed out to them. This is not a criticism, but a compliment. The ability to learn complicated things without overt teaching or awareness is a superpower that highly skilled players rely on to build their techniques. The good news is that the rest of us also possess this ability, because it is how our motor system works.
Origins of Escape Motion
Like most aspects of efficient instrument technique, the subconscious matching of escape motions and phrases has likely been performed for as long as plucked instruments have been played. However, since great players are frequently unaware they’re doing anything specific to get from one string to another, there is little mention of them in the historical record. Mandolin instructional guides as far back as the middle of the 19th century include detailed descriptions of techniques like sweeping, but no specific mention of how string switching works when using alternate picking.
Prior to Cracking The Code, it was not widely known that different joint motions might require different sequences of pickstrokes to maintain clean string changes, and avoid awkwardness and errors. The technical explanation for this, and advice for what to do about it, were simply not part of mainstream guitar teaching. The specific terminology we created to describe it — including the phrase “escape motion” itself — didn’t exist yet. Our classic interviews with picking pioneers like Michael Angelo Batio, Steve Morse, and Albert Lee were the first systematic attempts to directly film players to understand and categorize the different motions they make. For more background, you can read about that history here.
In the next sections, we’ll take a closer look at these four fundamental categories of picking motions to understand what they can do, and who’s using them.